13 April 2010




The DRDO SET examination is of three hours duration. Each candidate appearing for the test will be given one Question Booklet containing objective type questions, in two separate sections. Section 'A' will consist of 100 questions to test the candidate's knowledge in the subject as per syllabus. Each question will have 4 choices one of which will be correct. Each correct answer will fetch 4 marks. For each incorrect answer, 1 mark will deducted. Section 'B' will consist of 50 questions to test the candidates analytical aptitude, quantitative skills, knowledge of current affairs and general S & T awareness suitable for Applied Research & Development. Each question will have 4 choices one of which will be correct. Each correct answer will fetch 2 marks. For each incorrect answer, 1/2 mark will be deducted. The standard of Section 'B' will be such as may be expected of Engineering Graduates/Science Post Graduates. The merit list will be prepared, based on the marks obtained by the candidates in Section A and Section B and this list will be used for shortlisting the candidates for interview purely on merit basis subject to minimum qualifying criteria as decided by RAC (Recruitment & Assessment Centre). The final selection of the candidates will be based purely on their performance in the interview.

For more details visit: www.drdo.org


Classical Mechanics: Conservation laws; collisions and scattering in laboratory and centre of mass reference frames; mechanics of systems of particles; rigid body dynamics; moment of inertia tensor; non inertial frames and pseudo forces; variational principle; Lagrange's and Hamilton's formalisms; equation of motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic motion, small oscillations, normal modes; wave equation and wave propagation; special theory of relativity - Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass-energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory: Laplace and Poisson equations; conductors and dielectrics; boundary value problems; Ampere's and Biot-Savart's law; Faraday's law; Maxwell's equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; boundary conditions at interfaces; electromagnetic waves; interference, diffraction and polarization; radiation from moving charges.

Solid State Physics: Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; elastic properties of solids, defects in crystals; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids; metal, semiconductors and insulators: transport properties; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.

Quantum Mechanics: Physical basis of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one and three dimensional potential problems; Particle in box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom; linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momentum; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

Atomic and Molecular Physics: Spectra of one-and many -electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; X-ray spectra; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR; lasers.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates, phase space, probability, ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck's distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, critical point.

Nuclear and Particle Physics: Rutherford scattering; basic properties of nuclei; radioactive decay; nuclear forces; two nucleon problem; nuclear reactions; conservation laws; fission and fusion; nuclear models; particle accelerators, detectors, elementary particles; photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; Quark model.

Electronics: Network analysis; semiconductor devices; bipolar transistors; FETs; power supplies, amplifiers, oscillators; operational amplifiers; elements of digital electronics; logic circuits.





Paper I will be a screening test and will consist of 2 sections. Section 'A' will have 30 objective type questions on general information on Science and its interface with society to test the candidates' awareness of Science, aptitude for scientific research and quantitative reasoning and also a few questions from common elementary computer science. Section 'B' will have 70 objective type questions from the subject area chosen by the candidates. Each question will carry 2 marks. However, in subject "Mathematical Sciences" the candidate will have to attempt any 50 questions out of the given 70 questions in Section 'B'; each carry 2.8 marks. The answers to these multiple choice questions have to be marked on a separately provided OMR Answer Sheet.


Paper II will consist of a number of questions requiring descriptive answers (confined to a maximum of one page length). The candidate is required to answer a specific number of questions ranging between 10 to 20 in his/her opted subject. The paper carries a maximum of 200 marks.

For more details visit: www.csir.res.in   



1. Basic Mathematical Methods: Calculus: Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices. Linear differential equations. Fourier series, Elementary complex analysis.

2. Classical Dynamics: Basic principles of classical dynamics. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Symmetries and conservation laws. Motion in the central field of force. Collisions and scattering. Mechanics of a system of particles. Small oscillations and normal modes. Wave motion - wave equation, phase velocity, group velocity, dispersion. Special theory of relativity - Lorentz transformations, addition of velocities, mass-energy equivalence.

3. Electromagnetics: Electrostatics - Laplace and Poisson equation, boundary value problems. Magnetostatics - Ampere's theorem, Biot-Savart law, em induction. Maxwell's equations in free space and in linear isotropic media. Boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials. Gauge invariance. EM waves - reflection and refraction, dispersion, interference, coherence, diffraction, polarization. Electrodynamics of a charged particle in electric and magnetic field. Radiation from moving charges radiation from a dipole. Retarded potential.

4. Quantum Physics and Applications: Wave - particle duality. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.The Schrodinger equation particle in a box, Harmonic Oscillator, Tunnelling through a barrier. Motion in a central potential, Orbital angular momentum. Angular momentum algebra, spin. Addition of angular momebta. Time-independent perturbation theory. Fermi's Golden Rule. Elementary theory of scattering a central potential. Phase shifts, partial wave analysis, Born approximation, Identical particles, spin-statistics connection.

5. Thermodynamic & Statistical Physics: Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences, Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell's relations. Chemical potential, Phase space, microstates and marostates. Partition function. Free energy and connection with themodynamic quantities. Classical quantum statistics, Degenerate electron gas. Black body radiation and Planck's distribution law, Bose-Einstein condensation, Einstein and Debye models for lattice specific heat.

6. Experimental Design: Measurement of fundamental constants: e, h, c. Measurement of High & Low Resistances, L and C. Detection of X-rays, Gamma rays, charged particles, neutrons etc: Ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, Scintillaion detectors, Solid State detectors. Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy. Measurement of Magnetic field, Hall effect, magneto resistance. X-ray and neutron Diffraction. Vacuum Techniques: basic idea of conductance, pumping speed etc. Pumps: Mechanical pump, Diffusion pump; Gauges: Thermocouple, Penning, Pirani, Hot Cathode. Low temperature: Cooling a sample over a range upto 4 k and measurement of temperature.

Measurement of energy and time using electronic signals from the detectors and associated instrumentation: Signal processing, A/D conversion & multichannel analyzers, Time-of-flight technique; Coincidence measurements: true to chance ratio, correlation studies. Error Analysis and Hypothesis testing: Propagation of errors, Plotting of Garph, Distributions, Leaset squares fitting, criteria for goodness of fits - chi square test.



1. Electronics: Physics of p-n junction. Diode as a circuit element; clipping, clamping; Rectification, Zener regulated power supply: Transistor as a circuit element: CC, CB, and CE configuration. Transistor as a switch, OR, AND, NOT gates. Feed back in Amplifiers.

Operational amplifier and its applications: inverting, non-inverting amplifier, adder, integrator, differentiator, wave form generator, comparator & schmidt trigger.

Digital integrated circuits - NAND & NOR gates as building blocks, XOR gate. Simple combinational circuits, Half & Full adder, Flip-flop, Shift register, counters Basic principles of A/D & D/A converters; Simple applications of A/D & D/A converters.

2. Atomic & Molecular Physics: Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Hydrogen atom spectrum. Electron spin. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure, relativistic correction, spectroscopic terms and selection rules, hyperfine structure. Exchange symmetry of wave functions. Pauli's exclusion principle, periodic table alkali - type spectra, LS & JJ coupling, Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Stark effects. X-rays and Auger transitions, Compton effect.

Principles of ESR, NMR; fMolecular Physics: Convalent, ionic and Vander waal's interaction. Rotation/vibration spectra. Raman spectra, selection rules, nuclear spin and intensity alternation, isotope effects, electronic states of diatomic molecules, Frank - Condon principle. Lasers - spontaneous and stimulated emission, optical pumping, population inversion, coherence (temporal and spatial) simple description of Ammonia maser, CO2 and He-Ne lasers.

3. Condensed Matter Physics: Crystal classes and systems, 2d & 3d lattices, Bonding of common crystal structures, reciprocal lattice, diffraction and structure factor, elementary ideas about point defects and dislocations. Lattice vibrations, Phonons, specific heat of solids, free electron theory - Fermi statitics; heat capacity. Electron motion in periodic potential, energy bands in metals, insulators and semi-conductors; tight binding approximation; impurity levels in doped semiconductors. Electronic transport from classical kinetic theory, electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and thermo-electric power transport in semiconductors. Dielectrics - polarization mechanisms, Clausius-Mossotti equation, Piezo, Pyro and ferro electricity. Dia and Para magnetism; exchange interactions, magnetic order, ferro, anti-ferro electrictiy. Superconductivity - basic phenomenology; Meissner effect, Type - 1 & Type - 2 super conductors, BCS paring mechanism.

4. Nuclear and Particle Physics: Basic nuclear properties - size - shape, charge distribution, spin & parity, binding, empirical mass formula, liquid drop model.

5. Nature of Nuclear force, elements of two body problem, charge independence and charge symmetry of nuclear forces. Evidence for nuclear shell structure. Single particle shell model - its validity and limitations, collective model. Interactions of charged particles and e.m rays with matter. Basic principles of particle detectors - ionization chamber; gas proportional counter and GM counter, scintillation and semiconductor detectors. Radioactive decays, basic theoretical understanding. Nuclear reactions, elementary ideas of reaction mechanisms, compound nucleus and direct reactions, elementary ideas of fission and fusion.

Particle Physics: Symmetrics and conservation laws, classification of fundamental forces and elementary particles, iso-spin, strangeness, Gell-Mann Nishijima formula, Quark model. C,P,T invariance in difference interations, parity - non conservation in weak interaction.



Syllabus for written Recruitment Examination for the post of "POST GRADUATE ASSISTANT"


Vector Fields: General expression for gradient, divergence curve and laplace operators in orthogonal curvilinear Co-ordinates and their explicit form in Cartesion spherical - coordinates, Stockes theorem and Gauss theorem.

Matrix theory: Algebaric operation - Rank of a matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors - Characteristic equation - Cayley Hamilton theorem - Diagonalisation and diagonalizability of unitary orthogonal, Hermitian and symmetric matrices.

Special Functions: Legendre, Hermite and Laugurens equation basic properties - Gamma and Beta functions.


Probability and Theory of errors: Basic concept of probability distribution - Exclusive events and addition - Compound events and products - Binomial - Poisson and Guassian distribution - Normal distribution of error - Standard error - Principle of least squares - Application of solution of linear equation - Curve fitting.

Group theory: Definition - Sub groups - Homomorphism and isomorphism - Group representations - Irreducible representation - Unitary representation.


Classical Mechanics: Generalized coordinates - D' alemberts principle, Lagrangian equation of motion - Hamiltonian equation - Conservative and non-conservative systems - Hamiltan equation, cyclic variables, principle of least action - Theory of small oscillations - Normal coordinates and normal modes - Linear diatomic molecule - Rigid bodies - moments and products of inertia - Euler's angle - Euler's equation of motion - symmetric top.


Maxwell Boltzmann statistics -Maxwellain distribution of velocities - mean - root mean square and most probable velocities - B-E Statistics - Distribution function - Phonon gas - Block body radiation - Fermi Dirac statistics - Distribution function - Electron gas - Pauli paramagnetism - Thermionic emission - elementary idea phase transition - properties of liquid helium - phase space, Liouvilla's theorem - statistical equation - micro canonical ensembles - Equation of state Thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas of equipartition of energy.


Electromagnetic Theory : Coulomb's law - Gauss law - Poisson's equation - laplace equation and solution to boundary value problem - Electrostatics of dielectric media - Molecular polarizability and its application - vector - scalar potential - B and H in a magnetic material - Maxwell's equations and their significance - Poynting theorem - Radiation of oscillating dipole.

Relativistic Mechanics: Basic ideas - Lorentz transformation - Time dilation and Lorentz contraction - Velocity addition law - Momentum and energy in relativistic mechanics - Centre of mass system for two relativistic particles.


Spectroscopy: Rotation spectra - vibration spectra - rotation vibration spectra of diatomic and linear molecules - Raman spectra - Experimental techniques and classical theory of Raman Scattering - electronic state of diatomic molecules - Frank Condon principle - Hund's coupling scheme - Evaluation of molecular constant from vibrational spectra data - Interaction between nuclear and spin and magnetic field - Nuclear resonance - Chemical shift - Dipole - Dipole interaction - Spin lattice interaction.


Solid State Physics: Energy levels and density of states in one, two and three dimensions - Electrical and Thermal conductivities - Wiedmann - Franz law - Energy bands in solids - Transport phenomena in semiconductors - operational functions of a junction diode - Schottky diode theorem - Bloch theorem - Krong - Penny model - Brillouin zones - wave equation of an electron in a periodic potential.

Thermal Properties of solids: Laws of thermodynamics - Maxwell's relations and their applications - production and measurement of low temperatures - Einstein and Debye theory of specific heats of solids.

Magnetic properties of materials: Langevin's theory of dia - para - magnetism - Quantum theory of para - magnetism - ferro magnetism - superconductivity - Meissner effect - Thermodynamics of superconducting materials - London equation - BCS theory - Josephson's effect.


Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger's wave equation - Free particle - Particle in a potential wall and barrier penetration - The probability interpretation - Expectation value - Eigen functions and eigen values - Stationary states - Wave pockets - Uncertainty principle - Linear Harmonic oscillator - angular momentum and addition of angular momenta.

Perturbation theory - Transition probability - constant and harmonic perturbation - scattering theory - differential and total scattering cross section - Born approximation - Partial wave analysis and phase shift analysis - Relativistic wave equations - Klein - Gordon equation - Dirac equation and its free particle solution.


Nuclear Physics: Binding energy - Semi empirical mass formula - stability of nuclei - nuclear forces - ground state of deuteron - Alpha decay - Beta decay - Fermi's theory - Selection rules - Liquid drop model - Nuclear fission - Shell model - Collective models.

Nuclear Instrumentation: Cyclotron - Synchro cyclotron - proton synchrotron - Detectors - GM counter - Scintillation Counter - Bubble Counter - Nuclear reactors - Neutron cross section - Fission product - Energy release - Chain reaction - Multiplication factor - Moderator - Natural Uranium - Diffusion equation - Homogeneous reactor.


Digital Electronics: Binary - Decimal - Octa and Hexa decimal numbers - 8421 excess - 3- Gray Codes - Logic gates - Laws Boolean algebra - Half and full address - Subtractors - RS, RST, JK and M/S Flip flops - Ripple counter - Decade counter - Up - down counter - Serial and parallel registers.

Operational Amplifier: Differential amplifier - parameters - applications - analog integration and differentiation - Analog computation - Comparators - sample and hold circuits - Oscillator - Hartely - Colpitt - Phase Shift - Wien's bridge oscillators - Astable mono - Bistable multivibrators - Clipping and Clamping circuits.

Microwave Physics: Microwave generation - Klystron - Magnetron - Traveling wave tubes - Microwave in rectangular and cylindrical wave guides - Characteristics of antennas - short dipole radiation - Antenna gain - Directivity - Radiation resistance - Radiation intensity.

Microprocessor: Evolution of microprocessor - Organization of micro computers - preliminary concepts - basic concepts of programming - Architecture - Address - Data and control buses - memory decoding - memory mapped I/O and I/O mapped I/O.

Machine and instruction cycles - Addressing modes - Use of arithmetic logical data - transfer stackand I/O instructions - Instruction set and assembly programming of 8085 microprocessor - Fetch - Execute - overlap - Instruction cycles - Instruction forward - Memories RAM - PROMS - EPROMS - EEPROMS - Static and Dynamic RAM.