13 April 2010

Fundamentals of Microprocessor 8085

 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Intel 8085 is a ______ bit microprocessor.
    a) 4 bit         b) 8 bit                        c) 16 bit           d) 32 bit

2. The time for the clock cycle of the Intel 8085 AH-2, version is _______
    a) 50 ns        b) 100 ns         c) 150 ns          d) 200 ns

3. The microprocessor 8085 has _____ basic instructions and _____ opcodes.
    a) 80, 246    b) 70, 346        c) 80, 346        d) 70, 246

4. ________ is flip-flop which indicates some condition which arises after the execution of an
    arithmetic or logic instruction.
  a) Instruction register       b) Temporary register     c) Status flag   d) None of these

5. The number of status flags in 8085 are
     a) 5             b) 6                  c) 8      d) 9

6. In 8085 name the 16 bit registers.

(a)    Stack Pointer     (b) Program Counter     (c)IR       (d) a and b

7. Which stack in 8085?

    a) FIFO       b) LIFO          c) FILO           d)LILO

8. What does mp speed depends on

a) Clock      b) Data bus width      c) Address bus width    d)Size of register

9. In8085 are of the following statements is not true

a) Co processor is interfaced in max mode             b) Co processor is interfaced in min mode
c) Co processor is interfaced in max/min mode       d) Supports pipelinig

10. The status that cannot be operated by direct instructions is
       a) Cy         b) Z           c) P           d) AC

11. ______ and ______ are treated as a 16 bit unit for stack operation.
      a) PSW and ACC         b) CS and P     c) Z and S       d) PC and SP

12. The width of address bus and data bus in 8085 are respectively ….
      a) 16, 8      b) 8,16       c) 8,8         d) 16,16

13. ______ memory locations can be addressed directly by Intel 8085.
      a) 34 K      b) 44K             c) 54 K                d) 64 K

14. The number of software interrupts in 8085 is ____
      a) 5            b) 8                  c) 9       d) 10

15. Identify the non makeable interrupt in the following
      a) RST4.5        b) RST5.5         c) RST6.5       d) RST 7.5

16. In response to RST 7.5 interrupt, the execution of control transfers to memory location...
       a) 0000H               b) 002CH           c) 0034H        d) 003CH

17. Which of following is both level and edge sensitive?
       a) RST 7.5            b) RST 5.5       c) TRAP    d) INTR

18. The interrupt vector address for TRAP is
         a) 0000H        b) 0024H       c) 0018H          d) 002CH

19. The status of S0 and S1 pins for memory read is.
        a) 0, 0        b) 0,1              c) 1,0                d) 1,1

20. The execution of RST n instruction causes the stack pointer to _____
      a) Incremented by two                    b) decremented by two
      c) remain unaffected                        d) none of the above

21. PSW stands for contents of _____
      a) Accumulator   b) flag register  c) both of above  d) none of the two

22. Which interrupts has highest Priority
     a) INTR      b) TRAP         c) RST 7.5       d)RST6.5

23. What is RST for the TRAP
      a) RST5.5              (b) RST4.5      c) RST4           d)RST 5
24. Which of the following is a hardware interrupt.
       a) RST 5.5 ,RST 6.5 ,RST 7.5     b) INTR ,TRAP    c)TRAP   d) a and b

25. What are level triggering interrupts
       a) RST 6.5 and RST5.5       b) RST7.5 and RST 6.5    c) RST 5.5 and RST7.5
       d) INTR and TRAP

26. What is SIM?
      a) Select interrupt mask                b) Sorting interrupt mask 
      c) Set interrupt mask                  d) Softer interrupt mask  

27. What is software interrupt?
      a) RSTO-7       b) RST5.5 -RST 7.5       c)INTR       d)TRAP

28. rim is used to check whether----------------?
      a) the write operation is done or not.     b) the interrupt is masked or not.
      c) the read operation is done or not.      d) a&b

29. In 8085, example for non maskable interrupts is
      a) TRAP   b) RST 6.5       c) INTR           d) RST 5.5

30. Adress line for RST 3 is
      a) 0020H       b) 0028H      c) 0018H        d) 0038H

31. The second part of the instruction is the data to be operated on, and it is called ______
      a) opcode      b) operand        c) instruction cycle            d) fetch cycle

32. The first part of an instruction which specifies the task to be performed by the computer is
       called _______
       a) opcode         b) operand         c) instruction cycle         d) fetch cycle

33. Which of the following is a one-byte instruction?
       a) MVI B, 05       b) LDA 2500H           c) IN 01   d) MOV A,B

34. Which of the following is a two-byte instruction?
       a) MVI B, 05       b) LDA 2500H      c) IN 01   d) both a and c

35. The necessary steps carried out to perform the operation of accessing either memory or I/O
       Device, constitute a ___________
       a) fetch operation             b) execute operation    c) machine cycle         d) instruction cycle

36. The status of S0 and S1 pins for memory write is.
        a) 0, 0        b) 0,1              c) 1,0                d) 1,1

37. The status of S0 and S1 pins for memory fetch is.
        a) 0, 0        b) 0, 1             c) 1,0                d) 1,1

38. The interrupt vector address for RST 6.5 is
         a) 0000H            b) 0034H        c) 0018H           d) 002CH

39. The interrupt vector address for RST 5.5 is
         a) 0000H            b) 0034H         c) 0018H              d) 002CH

40. The difference between memory and storage is that the memory is__________ and
       storage is_________
       a) Temporary, permanent   b) Permanent, temporary c) Slow, fast      d) None of the above

41. Which of the Following holds the ROM, CPU, RAM and expansion cards.
      a) Hard disk    b) Floppy disk     c) Mother board      d) None of the above

42. The language that the computer can understand and execute is called ______
       a) Machine language  b) Application software   c) System program      d) None of the above

43. Actual execution of instructions in a computer takes place in
     a) ALU      b) Control Unit     c) Storage unit     d) None of the above

44. Execution of two or more programs by a single CPU is known as:
      a) Multiprocessing    b) Time sharing    c) Multiprogramming   d) None of the above

45. Operating system is________
      a) A collection of hardware components    c) A collection of software routines
     b) A collection of input-output devices     d) none of the above

46. The part of machine level instruction, which tells the central processor what was to be
      done is
     a) Operation code    b) Address    c) Operand    d) None of the above

47. The communication line between the CPU, memory and peripherals is called a
      a) Bus        b) line              c) media          d) none of these

48. The language that the computer can understand and execute is called
      a) Machine language    b) Application software     c) System program  d) None of the above

49. A step by step procedure used to solve a problem is called
     a) Operating system b) Algorithm c) Application Program d) None of the above

50. The Central Processing Unit:
      a) is operated from the control panel. b) is controlled by the input data entering the system
      c) controls the auxiliary storage unit  d) controls all input, output and processing.

51. C is
      a) An assembly language        b) A third generation high level language
     c) A machine language          d) None of the above

52. In 1st Complement a number which is Subtracted from other number is known as……….
a)                    a) Carry        b) subtrahend        c) minuend       d) Non of this

53. In a 2nd Complement a number which is subtracted from other number is known as………..
a)                 a) Carry           b) Subtrahend        c) Minuend      d) Non of this

54. In 2nd Complement a number which is subtracted from other number is known as………….
a)                        a) Carry          b) Subtrahend             c) Minuend        d) None of them

55. 8085 was introduced in __________
      a) 1971      b) 1976           c) 1972            d) 1978

56. The First Microprocessor was__________
     a) Intel 4004          b) 8080            c) 8085            d) 4008

57. Which is a 8 bit Microprocessor __________
     a) Intel 4040           b) Pentium – I          c) 8088            d) Motorala MC-6801

58. Pentium-I, Pentium-II, Pentium-III and Pentium-IV are recently introduced microprocessor         
       by__________
a)      Motorala          b) Intel            c) Stephen Mors          d) None

59. The address bus flow in __________
      a) bidirection         b) unidirection           c) Mulidirection          d) Circular

60. Status register is also called as ___________
      a) Accumulator     b) Stack           c) Counter      d) flags

61. The 8085 is based in a _____ pin DIP
      a) 40                      b) 45                c) 20                d) 35

62. The 8085 Microprocessor uses__________ V power supply
     a) +5V        b) -5V             c) +12v            d) -12v

63. The address / data bus in 8085 is __________
      a) Multiplexed                  b) demultiplexed         c) decoded      d) loaded

64. ____________ is used to create Large program on internet
    a) C++         b) HTML         c) C language              d) Java script

65. The Device which converts instructions into the binary form that is understood by the
      computer and supply to the computer is known as__________
a)                     a)  Input               b) Output        c) Automatic   d) Memory

66. Can ROM be used as stack?
     a) Yes         b) No               c) Some times yes       d) Some times no

67. The advantage of memory mapped i/o over i/o mapped i/o is _________
      a) Faster                   b) Many instructions supporting memory mapped i/o
      c) Require a bigger address decoder     d) All of the above.

68. If the contents of SP are 1000H, the content of B and C registers after PUSH B instruction
      are...
       a) 0FFFH, OFFEH     b) 0FFE H ,0FFF   c) 1000 H,0FFF H   d) 1000 H, 1001H

69. In an 8085 system, let SP=2000 H. Then after execution of POP H instruction will transfer     
      the   memory contents as…
       a) 2001H and 2002H to H and L register       b) 2001H and 2000H in to H and L registers
       c) 2000H and 1FFFH to H and L registers    d) 2000H and 1999H to H and L registers

70. Let contents of accumulator and B are 00000100 and 01000000 respectively. After 
      execution of   SUB B instruction, accumulator contents are….
      a) 00000100            b) 01000000              c) 11000100                 d) 010001000

71.  Let the contents of C register be 00000000. The contents of C register after execution of
        DCR C is _______
        a) 00000000        b) 11111111        c) 00000001            d) none of above

72.  In an 8085 based system, the maximum number of input output devices can be connected
       using I/0 mapped I/O method is
       a) 64          b) 512                c) 256            d) 65536

73. After the execution of CMA instruction, the status of Z and Cy flags are respectively
       a) set, reset            b) set, unchanged      c) reset, set       d)reset, unchanged 

 74. The 8085 will enter in to INA cycle after the execution of…
        a) any interrupt     b)TRAP only          c) INTR only      d) RST 7.5,6.5,5.5 only

75. To reset carry without affecting accumulator contents, we have to use
        a) SUB A             b) XRA A      c) ORA A        d) CMC

76. In order to complement the lower order nibble of the accumulator, we can use …
      a) ANI 0FH          b) XRI 0FH            c) ORI 0FH         d) CMA

77. Which of the following instruction will never affect the zero flag..
      a)DCR reg             b) ORA reg           c) DCX  rp            d) XRA reg

78. The interface peripheral used with key board is
      a) 8251                   b) 8279                c) 8259                   d) 8253

79. To save accumulator value on to the stack, which of the following instructions may be  
       used..
      a) PUSH PSW      b) PUSH A     c) PUSH SP    d) POP PSW

80.  A single instruction to clear the lower 4 bits of accumulator in 8085 alp is…….
      a) XRI 0FH            b) ANI F0 H       c) XRI F0H           d)ANI 0FH

81. Interfacing devices for DMA controller, programmable interval timer are respectively…
      a) 8257, 8253         b) 8253, 8257              c) 8257,8251                          d)8251,8257

82. If the contents of register B are greater than that of accumulator, CMP B will affect carry
      flag, zero  flag respectively as..
     a) set, reset                          b) reset, set      c) reset, reset              d) set, set

83. The status of s, z, cy flags after execution of following instructions are……
             MVI A, A9H
MVI B, 57H 
            ADD B  
ORA A
a)      0,1,1          b)0,1,0                    c)1,0,0            d)1,0,1

84. The contents of registers A and B after execution of following instructions are..
            XRA A 
MVI B, 4AH  
            SUI 4FH 
            ANA B 
            HLT
      a) 05,4A                 b) 4F, 00                     c) B1, 4A        d) 00,4A

85. The instruction that does not clear the contents of accumulator of 8085 is..
      a) XRA A              b) ANI 00H                      c) MVI A,00H                 d) none of them

86. The loop will be executed after the following instructions…
            XRA A 
LXI B, 0007H 
LOOP: DCX B 
JNZ LOOP
a)      1 time            b) 8 times        c) 7times           d) infinite times

87. Consider the loop
LXI H, 000AH
    LOOP: DCX B 
MOV A, B 
ORA C
 JNZ LOOP        

This loop will be executed by

a)      1 time             b) 10 times                   c)11 times       d) infinite times

88.  The contents of accumulator after the execution of following instructions will be 
MVI A, B7H 
ORA A 
RAL

a)      6EH                       b) 4FH            c) EEH            d)EFH

89. The contents of the accumulator after execution of following instructions
 MVI A, 07H
RLC
MOV B, A
RLC
RLC
ADD B

a) 46H                         b)70H              c)38H              d)68H

90.  If the accumulator of 8085 contains 37H and the previous operation has set the carry flag,    
       the   instruction ACI 56H will result in
       a) 8DH                 b) 8EH            c) 17H           d) 18H

91. Consider the execution of the following instruction by 8085.   
MVI   H, 01FFH
SHLD   2050H
       After execution the contents of memory loction 2050H,2051H and registers H,L will be
       respectively…
       
       a) 00H,01H,FFH,FFH           b) FFH,01H,FFH,01H 
       c) FFH,01H,01H,FFH          d) 01H,FFH,FFH,FFH

92. Consider the following set of 8085 instruction.
            MVI A,82H   
ORA A 
JP DSPLY 
XRA A 
  DSPLY:OUT  PORT1 
HLT.
    
The output at PORT1 is

  a) 00H            b) FFH            c) 92H                        d) 11H

93. After the execution of following instructions, contents of PC and HL are…
        
 LXI H, 30A0
DAD H
PCHL
a) PC=2715H   HL=30A0H                           b) PC=30A0H, HL=2715H
            c) PC-6140H, HL=6140H                             d) PC=6140H, HL=2715H

94. If the following program starts at 0100H, the contents of accumulator when PC reaches 
      0109H _________
            LXI SP, 00FFH 
LXI H, 0107H
MVI A, 20H
SUB M
      
     a) 20H                                                                     b) 02H                                   
     c) 00H                                                                     d) FFH

95. Let the contents of B register and accumulator are 49h and 3AH respectively. The contents  
      of accumulator, status of carry flag and sign flag are..
      a) F1H,1,1               b) 0F,1,1             c) F0H,0,0              d) 1FH,1,1

96. The contents of SP, HL after the execution of following instructions.
            LXI SP, 27FF 
CALL 1006
 POP H
              a) 27FF,1003             b) 27FD,1003      c) 27FF,1006                     d) 27FD,1006

97. The contents of accumulator after the execution of following set of instructions is
 XRA A
             MVI B, F0H
             SUB B
     a) 01H                    b) 0FH                 c)F0H                      d)10H

98. The instruction used for storing the contents of H and L registers in to 2050H and 2051h 
      respectively  is...
    a) SPHL 2050H      b)SPHL2051H      c) SHLD 2050 H             d) STAX 2050 H

99. The number of times that the NOP operation executed in the following program is..
             MVI A, 10H
MVI B, 10H 
BACK: NOP
ADD B
RLC 
JNC BACK 
 HLT
      a) 1                         b) 2                  c) 3                   d) 4

100.  After the execution of XRA A instruction
      a) CY flag set        b) CY flag is reset         c) Z flag is set           d) Z flag is reset

101. An m-bit microprcessohas m-bit
         a) Flag register     b) data registers    c) program counter        d) instruction register

102. If the contents of SP and PC are F000H and 2400H. The contents after CALL E000 will be
        a) PC:F003   SP:2400                                          b) PC:E000M SP:2400 
       c) PC:E000,SP:EFFE                                         d) PC:E000,SP:23FE

103. The SIM instruction outputs the contents of accumulator to define …
        a) interrupt mask bit        b) serial output data line      c) both above      d) none of them

104. The content of flag register after the following set of instructions are executed…
            LXI SP,209FH 
MVI C,00H 
PUSH B 
POP PSW
RET
     a)10H                     b)20H                 c)00H                       d)9F

105. The contents of accumulator after the execution of the following set of instructions.
MVI A,30H 
ACI 30H 
XRA A 
POP H
        a) 30H                 b) 60H              c) 00H            d ) contents of stack memory

106. The contents of accumulator before CMA instruction is A5H. Its content after instruction    
         execution is
          a) A5H              b) 5AH              c) AAH          d) 55H


 Two Marks Questions

1. Which type of architecture 8085 has?

            8085 has Von Neumann architecture. It was derived after the name of mathematician
John Von Neumann. It.s having 16 address bus and 8 bit data bus.it can access 2^16 individual memory location.

2. How many memory locations can be addressed by a microprocessor with 14 address
lines?
            2^14=16384

3. 8085 is how many bit microprocessor?
            8 bit as its data bus is 8 bit.

4. Why is data bus bi-directional?
            As it has to carry data from mp to external device or the reverse.

5. What is the function of accumulator?

            This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The result of an operation is stored in the accumulator.

6. What is flag, bus?

            The ALU includes five flip-flops, which are set or reset after an operation according to data conditions of the result in the accumulator and other registers. They are called Zero(Z), Carry (CY), Sign (S), Parity (P), and Auxiliary Carry (AC) flags.

            Typical system uses a number of busses, collection of wires, which transmit binary numbers, one bit per wire. A typical microprocessor communicates with memory and other devices (input and output) using three busses: Address Bus, Data Bus and Control Bus.

Address Bus
            The Address Bus consists of 16 wires, therefore Its "width" is 16 bits. A 16 bit Address bus can identify 2^16=65536 memory locations i.e. 0000000000000000 up to 1111111111111111. Because memory consists of boxes, each with a unique address, the size of the address bus determines the size of memory, which can be used. To communicate with memory the microprocessor sends an address on the address bus, eg 0000000000000011 (3 in decimal), to the memory. The memory the selects box number 3 for reading or writing data. Address bus is unidirectional, ie numbers only sent from microprocessor to memory, not other way.
Data Bus
Data Bus: carries .8-bit data., in binary form, between ìP and other external units, such as memory. The Data Bus typically consists of 8 wires. Data bus used to transmit "data", i.e. information, results of arithmetic, etc, between memory and ìP. Bus is bi-directional. Size of the data bus determines what arithmetic can be done. If only 8 bits wide then largest number is 11111111 (255 in decimal). Data Bus also carries instructions from memory to the microprocessor. Size of the bus therefore limits the number of possible instructions to 256, each specified by a separate number.

Control Bus
It is a group of various single lines used to provide control and synchronization signals. ìP generates different control signals for different operations. These signals are used to identify the device with which the ìP wants to communicate.

7. What are tri-state devices and why they are essential in a bus oriented system?

            Tri state logic devices have three states (0, 1 and high impedance). When the enable (may be active high or active low) line is activated, the device works. The disabled enable line makes the device at high impedance state and it is disconnected from the circuit.


            In microcomputer system the peripherals are connected in parallel between address bus and data bus. Because of tri stated interfacing devices, peripherals do not load the system buses. Processor communicates with one peripheral or device at a time by enabling the tri state line of the interfacing peripheral or device. Tri state logic is critical to proper functioning of the microcomputer.

8. Why are program counter and stack pointer 16-bit registers?

            Because SP points to the beginning of stack memory (LXI SP 8000H) which is 16-bits.
Also PC points to the memory locations (16-bits) of the instructions to be excecuted to maintain the proper sequence of execution of program.

9. What are the different addressing modes in 8085?

Register:-
Data is provided through the registers. Or operand is only register(s). Example: MOV Rd, Rs.
Register indirect:-
Operand M or register pair. Example: MOV A,M; LDAX B; STAX D; MVI M,32H (exception for immediate addressing mode).
Direct:-
Operand 8-bit port address or 16-bit memory address. Example: IN 84H, OUT 84H, all CALLs.
Immediate:-
Instruction having the letter I. Or immediate data to the destination provided. Also all jump instructions as the meaning is jump immediately. Example MVI M, 2H; ADI 47H; LXIH 2050 (exception for direct addressing mode).
Implicit:-
No operand. Example: XCHG.
  
10. What is the difference between MOV and MVI?



Opcode
Operand
Bytes
M-cycles
T-states
MOV
Rd, Rs,
M, Rs,
Rd, M
1
1
2
2
4
7
7
MVI
reg, data
M, data
2
2
2
3
7
10


 
Rd = Destination register, Rs = Source register, M =Memory location pointed out by HL register pair, reg =Regiser, data = 8-bit data.

11. What happens during DMA transfer?

            To make a fast data transfer, the MPU releases the control of its buses to DMA. DMA acts as an external device and the active high input signal HOLD goes HIGH when the DMA is requesting to the MPU to use its buses. After receiving the HOLD request from DMA, the MPU releases the buses in the following machine cycle and generates an active high output signal HLDA indicating the release of buses. Once the DMA gains that control, it acts in the role of the MPU for data transfer.

12. What is PSW?

            PSW (Program Status Word) represents the contents of the accumulator and the flag register together considering the accumulator as the high order and flag as the low order register as if it is the AF register pair. For example POP PSW.

13. What is ALE? Explain the functions of ALE in 8085.

            It is the acronym for Address Latch Enable (pin number 30) used to demultiplex the multiplexed lower order address/data bus. During T1 the ALE goes HIGH. When ALE goes HIGH, the latch is enabled. So the o/p changes according to the i/p data. During T1 the o/p of latch is 05H. When ALE goes LOW, the data byte 05H is latched until the next ALE. And after the latching operation the o/p of the latch represents the lower order address bus A0-A7.

 14. Which line will be activated when an output device require attention from CPU?
            Interrupt Request (INTR, pin 10, it is an input signal to ìP). It goes high when the external devices want to communicate.

15. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085?
             Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal.

16. Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085?
             RST 7.5 is a raising edge-triggering interrupt.

17. What does Quality factor mean?
            The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses.

18. What are level-triggering interrupt?
            RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are level-triggering interrupts.

19. Comparison between full address decoding and partial address decoding?
Full Address Decoding
Partial Address decoding
1. All higher address lines are decoded to select the memory or I/O device.
1. Few higher address lines are decoded to select the memory or I/O device.
2. More hardware is required to design decoding logic.
2. Hardware required to design decoding logic is less and sometimes it can be eliminated.
3. Higher cost for decoding circuit.
3. Less cost for decoding circuit.
4. No Multiple addresses.
4. It has a advantage of multiple addresses.
5. Used in large systems
5. Used in small systems

20. Give some examples of port devices used in 8085 microprocessor based system?

            The various port devices used in 8085 are 8212,8155,8156,8255,8355,8755.

21. What is the need for timing diagram?

            The timing diagram provides information regarding the status of various signals, when a machine cycle is executed. The knowledge of timing diagram is essential for system designer to select matched peripheral devices like memories, latches, ports etc from a microprocessor system.

22. What is vectored and non-vectored interrupt?

            When an interrupt is accepted, if the processor control branches to a specific address defined by the manufacturer then the interrupt is called vectored interrupt. In Non-vectored interrupt there is no specific address for storing the interrupt service routine. Hence the interrupted device should give the address of the interrupt service routine.

23. When the 8085 processor checks for an interrupt?

            In the second T-state of the last machine cycle of every instruction, the 8085 processor checks whether an interrupt request is made or not.

24. What is a port?

            The port is a buffered I/O, which is used to hold the data transmitted from the microprocessor to I/O devices and vice versa.

25. Advantages of differential data transfer?

            1. Communication at high data rate in real world environment.
            2. Differential data transmission offers superior performance.
            3. Differential signals can help induced noise signals.

26. What are the types of rotate instructions?

            RLC – Rotate Accumulator Left
            RRC- Rotate Accumulator Right
            RAL – Rotate Accumulator Left through Carry
            RAR - Rotate Accumulator Right through Carry

27. What are the operating modes of 8255?

            1. Bit set/Reset mode
            2. I/O modes
                        a)mode 0 : Simple input/output
                        b)mode 1 : Input/output with handshake
                        c)mode 2 : Bi-directional I/O data transfer

28. What is Microprocessor? Give the power supply & clock frequency of 8085?
            A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable logic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provides result as output. The power supply of 8085 is +5V and clock frequency in 3MHz.

29. List few applications of microprocessor-based system.
It is used:
            i.   For measurements, display and control of current, voltage, temperature, pressure, etc.
            ii. For traffic control and industrial tool control.
            iii. For speed control of machines.

30. What are the functions of an accumulator?
            The accumulator is the register associated with the ALU operations and sometimes I/O operations. It is an integral part of ALU. It holds one of data to be processed by ALU. It also temporarily stores the result of the operation performed by the ALU.

31. List the 16 – bit registers of 8085 microprocessor.
            Stack pointer (SP) and Program counter (PC).

32. List the allowed register pairs of 8085.
            * B-C register pair
            * D-E register pair
            * H-L register pair

33. What is a microcomputer?
            A computer that is designed using a microprocessor as its CPU is called microcomputer.

34. What is the signal classification of 8085
            All the signals of 8085 can be classified into 6 groups
·         Address bus
·         Data bus
·         Control and status signals
·         Power supply and frequency signals
·         Externally initiated signals
·         Serial I/O ports

35. What are operations performed on data in 8085?
            The various operations performed are
            * Store 8-bit data
            * Perform arithmetic and logical operations
            * Test for conditions
            * Sequence the execution of instructions
            * Store data temporarily during execution in the defined R/W memory locations called      the stack

36. Steps involved to fetch a byte in 8085
i. The PC places the 16-bit memory address on the address bus
ii. The control unit sends the control signal RD to enable the memory chip
iii. The byte from the memory location is placed on the data bus
iv. The byte is placed in the instruction decoder of the microprocessor and the task is carried out  according to the instruction.

37. Define instruction cycle, machine cycle and T-state
            Instruction cycle is defined, as the time required completing the execution of an instruction. Machine cycle is defined as the time required completing one operation of accessing memory, I/O or acknowledging an external request. Tcycle is defined as one subdivision of the operation performed in one clock period.

38. What is an instruction?
An instruction is a binary pattern entered through an input device to command the microprocessor to perform that specific function.

39. What is the use of ALE?
            The ALE is used to latch the lower order address so that it can be available in T2 and T3 and used for identifying the memory address. During T1 the ALE goes high, the latch is transparent ie, the output changes according to the input data, so the output of the latch is the lower order address. When ALE goes low the lower order address is latched until the next ALE.

40. How many machine cycles does 8085 have, mention them
            The 8085 have seven machine cycles. They are
·         Opcode fetch
·         Memory read
·         Memory write
·         I/O read
·         I/O write
·         Interrupt acknowledge
·         Bus idle

41. Explain the signals HOLD, READY and SID.
            HOLD indicates that a peripheral such as DMA controller is requesting the use of address bus, data bus and control bus. READY is used to delay the microprocessor read or write cycles until a slow responding peripheral is ready to send or accept data.SID is used to accept serial data bit by bit.

42. Mention the categories of instruction and give two examples for each category.
The instructions of 8085 can be categorized into the following five categories
·         Data transfer Instructions       -MOV Rd,Rs STA 16-bit
·         Arithmetic Instructions           -ADD R DCR M
·         Logical Instructions                -XRI 8-bit RAR
·         Branching Instructions            -JNZ CALL 16-bit
·         Machine control Instructions  -HLT NOP

43. Explain LDA, STA and DAA instructions.
            LDA copies the data byte into accumulator from the memory location specified by the 16-bit address. STA copies the data byte from the accumulator in the memory location specified by 16-bit address. DAA changes the contents of the accumulator from binary to 4-bit BCD digits.

44. Explain the different instruction formats with examples.
            The instruction set is grouped into the following formats
·         One byte instruction     -MOV C,A
·         Two byte instruction     -MVI A,39H
·         Three byte instruction  -JMP 2345H

45. What is the use of addressing modes, mention the different types?
            The various formats of specifying the operands are called addressing modes, it is used to access the operands or data. The different types are as follows
·         Immediate addressing
·         Register addressing
·         Direct addressing
·         Indirect addressing
·         Implicit addressing

46. What is the use of bi-directional buffers?
            It is used to increase the driving capacity of the data bus. The data bus of a microcomputer system is bi-directional, so it requires a buffer that allows the data to flow in both directions.

47.  Give the register organization of 8085
W(8)
Temp. Reg
Z(8)
Temp. Reg
B(8)
Register
C(8)
Register
D(8)
Register
E(8)
Register
H(8)
Register
L(8)
Register
Stack Pointer
(16)
Program Counter
(16)


48. Define stack and explain stack related instructions.
            The stack is a group of memory locations in the R/W memory that is used for the temporary storage of binary information during the execution of the program. The stack related instructions are PUSH & POP.

49. Why do we use XRA A instruction
            The XRA A instruction is used to clear the contents of the Accumulator and store the value 00H.

50. Compare CALL and PUSH instructions
CALL
PUSH
1.When CALL is executed the microprocessor automatically stores the 16-bit address of the instruction next to CALL on the stack.
2.When CALL is executed the stack pointer is decremented by two
1.PUSH The programmer uses the instruction to save the contents of the register pair on the stack
2. When PUSH is executed the stack pointer is  decremented by two

51. What is Microcontroller and Microcomputer?
            Microcontroller is a device that includes microprocessor; memory and I/O signal lines on a single chip, fabricated using VLSI technology. Microcomputer is a computer that is designed using microprocessor as its CPU. It includes microprocessor, memory and I/O.

52. Define Flags.
            The flags are used to reflect the data conditions in the accumulator. The 8085 flags are S-Sign flag, Z-Zero flag, AC-Auxiliary carry flag, P-Parity flag, CYCarry flag, D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0.

53. How does the microprocessor differentiate between data and instruction?
            When the first m/c code of an instruction is fetched and decoded in the instruction register, the microprocessor recognizes the number of bytes required to fetch the entire instruction. For example MVI A, Data, the second byte is always considered as data. If the data byte is omitted by mistake whatever is in that memory location will be considered as data & the byte after the “data” will be treated as the next instruction.

54. Compare RET and POP.
RET
 POP
1.RET transfers the contents of the top two locations of the stack to the PC
2.When RET is executed the SP is incremented by two
3.Has 8 conditional RETURN instructions
1.POP transfers the contents of the top two locations of the stack to the specified register pair
2. When POP is executed the SP is incremented by two
 3.No conditional POP instructions

55. What is assembler?
            The assembler translates the assembly language program text which is given as input to the assembler to their binary equivalents known as object code. The time required to translate the assembly code to object code is called access time. The assembler checks for syntax errors & displays them before giving the object code.

56. What is loader?
            The loader copies the program into the computer’s main memory at load time and begins the program execution at execution time.

57. What is linker?
            A linker is a program used to join together several object files into one large object file. For large programs it is more efficient to divide the large program modules into smaller modules. Each module is individually written, tested & debugged. When all the modules work they are linked together to form a large functioning program.

58. What is interrupt service routine?
            Interrupt means to break the sequence of operation. While the CPU is executing a program an interrupt breaks the normal sequence of execution of instructions & diverts its execution to some other program. This program to which the control is transferred is called the interrupt service routine.

59. What are the various programmed data transfer methods?
i) Synchronous data transfer
 ii) Asynchronous data transfer
 iii) Interrupt driven data transfer

60. What is interfacing?
            An interface is a shared boundary between the devices which involves sharing information. Interfacing is the process of making two different systems communicate with each other.

61. List the operation modes of 8255
a) I.O Mode
            i. Mode 0-Simple Input/Output.
            ii. Mode 1-Strobed Input/Output (Handshake mode)
            iii. Mode 2-Strobed bidirectional mode
 b) Bit Set/Reset Mode.

62. What is a control word?
            It is a word stored in a register (control register) used to control the operation of a program digital device.

63. What is the function of DMA address register?
            Each DMA channel has one DMA address register. The function of this register is to store the address of the starting memory location, which will be accessed by the DMA channel. Thus the starting address of the memory block that will be accessed by the device is first loaded in the DMA address register of the channel. Naturally, the device that wants to transfer data over a DMA channel, will access the block of memory with the starting address stored in the DMA Address Register.

64. What is the purpose of control word written to control register in 8255?
            The control words written to control register specify an I/O function for each I.O port. The bit D7 of the control word determines either the I/O function of the BSR function.

65. What is the size of ports in 8255?
            Port-A : 8-bits
            Port-B : 8-bits
            Port-CU : 4-bits
            Port-CL : 4-bits

66. Difference between memory mapped I/o and I/O mapped I/o?
Memory Mapped I/O
I/O mapped I/o
1. In this device address is 16- bit. Thus
Ao to A15 lines are used to generate the
device address
1. In this device address is 8-bit. Thus Ao
to A7 or A8 to A15 lines are used to
generate device address.
2. MEMR and MEMW control signals
are used to control read and write I/O
operations.
2. IOR and IOW control signals are used
to control read and write I/O operations.
3. Instructions available are
LDA,STA,MOV R,M , ADD M etc
3. Instructions available are IN and OUT.
4. Data transfer is between any register
and I/O device.
4. Data transfer is between accumulator
and I/O device.
5. Decoding 16-bit address may require
more hardware.
5. Decoding 8-bit address will require
less hardware.


67. Distinguish between the memories mapped I/O peripheral I/O?
Memory Mapped I/O
Peripheral MappedI/O
16-bit device address
8-bit device address
Data transfer between any general-purpose register and I/O port.
Data is transfer only between accumulator and I.O port
The memory map (64K) is shared between I/O device and system memory.
The I/O map is independent of the memory map; 256 input device and 256 output device can be connected
More hardware is required to decode 16-bit address
Less hardware is required to decode 8-bit address
Arithmetic or logic operation can be directly performed with I/O data
Arithmetic or logical operation cannot be directly performed with I/O data
68. What are memory mapping and I/O mapping?
       
Memory mapping:
The assignment of memory addresses to various registers in a memory chip is called as
memory mapping.

I/O mapping:
The assignment of addresses to various I/O devices in the memory chip is called as I/O mapping.

69. What is status flag bit?
            The flag register reflects the results of logical and arithmetic instructions. The flag register digits D0, D2, D4, D6, D7 and D11 are modified according to the result of the execution of logical and arithmetic instruction. These are called as status flag bits.

70. What is a control flag?
            The bits D8 and D9 namely, trap flag (TF) and interrupt flag (IF) bits, are used for controlling machine operation and thus they are called control flags.

71. Compare Microprocessor and Microcontroller.
Microprocessor
Microcontroller
Microprocessor contains ALU,general purpose registers,stack pointer, program counter, clock timing circuit and interrupt circuit.
Microcontroller ontains the circuitry of microprocessor and in addition it has built- in ROM, RAM, I/O devices, timers and counters.
It has many instructions to
move data between memory
and CPU.
It has one or two instructions to move data between memory and CPU.
It has one or two bit handling
instructions.
It has many bit handling instructions.
Access times for memory and I/O
devices are more.
Less access times for built-in memory and I/O devices.
Microprocessor based system
requires more hardware.
Microcontroller based system requires less hardware reducing PCB size and increasing the reliability.

72. What are the various registers in 8085?
            Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer, Program Counter are the various registers in 8085 .

73. What are the various flags used in 8085?
            Sign flag, Zero flag, Auxillary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag.

74. What is Stack Pointer?
            Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-bit register in the Microprocessor, which holds the address of the top of the stack.

75. What is Program counter?
            Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the next instruction.

76. Which Stack is used in 8085?
            LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored information can be retrieved first.

77. What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor?
            The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.

78. What is meant by a bus?
            A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, & control signals.

79. What is Tri-state logic?
            Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tri-state logic has a third line called enable line.

80. Give an example of one address microprocessor?
8085a one address microprocessor.

81. In what way interrupts are classified in 8085?
            In 8085 the interrupts are classified as Hardware and Software interrupts.

82. What are Hardware interrupts?
            TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, INTR.

83. What are Software interrupts?
            RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7.

84. Which interrupt has the highest priority?
            TRAP has the highest priority.

85. Name 5 different addressing modes?
            Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing modes.

86. How many interrupts are there in 8085?
            There are 12 interrupts in 8085.

87. What is clock frequency for 8085?
            3 MHz is the maximum clock frequency for 8085.

88. What is the RST for the TRAP?
            RST 4.5 is called as TRAP.

89. In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register?
            Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High order Register.

90. What are input & output devices?
            Keyboards, Floppy disk are the examples of input devices. Printer, LED / LCD display, CRT Monitor are the examples of output devices.

91. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085?
            Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal.

92. Why crystal is a preferred clock source?
            Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesn’t drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.

93. Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085?
            RST 7.5 is a raising edge-triggering interrupt.

94. What does Quality factor mean?
            The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses.

95. What are level-triggering interrupt?
Ans:- RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are level-triggering interrupts.

96. What is meant by Maskable interrupts?
            An interrupt that can be turned off by the programmer is known as Maskable interrupt.

97. What is Non-Maskable interrupts?
            An interrupt which can be never be turned off (ie.disabled) is known as Non-Maskable interrupt.

98. Which interrupts are generally used for critical events?
            Non-Maskable interrupts are used in critical events. Such as Power failure, Emergency, Shut off etc.,

99. Give examples for Maskable interrupts?
            RST 7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5 are Maskable interrupts.

100. Give example for Non-Maskable interrupts?
            Trap is known as Non-Maskable interrupts, which is used in emergency condition.

101. List out the five categories of the 8085 instructions. Give examples of the instructions for each group.
  • Data transfer group – MOV, MVI, LXI.
  • Arithmetic group – ADD, SUB, INR.
  • Logical group –ANA, XRA, CMP.
  • Branch group – JMP, JNZ, CALL.
  • Stack I/O and Machine control group – PUSH, POP, IN, HLT.
102. Explain the difference between a JMP instruction and CALL instruction.
            A JMP instruction permanently changes the program counter. A CALL instruction leaves information on the stack so that the original program execution sequence can be resumed.

103. Explain the purpose of the I/O instructions IN and OUT.
            The IN instruction is used to move data from an I/O port into the accumulator. The OUT instruction is used to move data from the accumulator to an I/O port. The IN & OUT instructions are used only on microprocessor, which use a separate address space for interfacing.

104. What is the difference between the shift and rotate instructions?
            A rotate instruction is a closed loop instruction. That is, the data moved out at one end is put back in at the other end. The shift instruction loses the data that is moved out of the last bit locations.

105. How many address lines in a 4096 x 8 EPROM CHIP?
            12 address lines.

106. What are the Control signals used for DMA operation?
            HOLD & HLDA.

107. What do you mean by wait state? What is its need?

            A wait state is a delay experienced by ìP when accessing external memory or another device that is slow to respond. the vice versa also cone into scenario. Now, to be able to access slow memory the ìP must be able to delay the transfer until the memory access is complete. One way is to increase the ìP clock period by reducing the clock frequency. Some ìPs provide a special control input called READY to allow the memory to set its own memory cycle time. If after sending an address out, the ìP dies not receive a READY input from memory, it enters a wait state for as long as the READY line is in 0 state. When the memory access is completed the READY goes high to indicate that the memory is ready for specified transfer.

108. List the four instructions which control the interrupt structure of the 8085 microprocessor.
  • DI ( Disable Interrupts )
  • EI ( Enable Interrupts )
  • RIM ( Read Interrupt Masks )
  • SIM ( Set Interrupt Masks )
109. What is meant by polling?
            Polling or device polling is a process which identifies the device that has interrupted the microprocessor.

110. What is meant by interrupt?
            Interrupt is an external signal that causes a microprocessor to jump to a specific subroutine.

111. Explain priority interrupts of 8085.
            The 8085 microprocessor has five interrupt inputs. They are TRAP, RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5, and INTR. These interrupts have a fixed priority of interrupt service. If two or more interrupts go high at the same time, the 8085 will service them on priority basis. The TRAP has the highest priority followed by RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5. The priority of interrupts in 8085 is shown in the table.
TRAP
1
RST 7.5
2
RST 6.5
3
RST 5.5
4
INTR
5

112. How many interrupts does 8085 have, mention them
            The 8085 has 5 interrupt signals; they are INTR, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5 and TRAP.

113. Basic concepts in memory interfacing
            The primary function of memory interfacing is that the microprocessor should be able to read from and write into a given register of a memory chip. To perform these operations the microprocessor should
·         Be able to select the chip
·         Identify the register
·         Enable the appropriate buffer

114. What are the signals used in input control signal & output control signal?
Input control signal
·         STB (Strobe input)
·         IBF (Input buffer full)
·         INTR(Interrupt request)
          Output control signal
·         OBF (Output buffer full)
·         ACK (Acknowledge input)
·         INTR(Interrupt request)

115. What are the features used mode 2 in 8255?
The single 8-bit port in-group A is available.
1) The 8-bit port is bi-directional and additionally a 5-bit control port is available.
2) Three I/O lines are available at port C, viz PC2-PC0.
3) Inputs and outputs are both latched.
4) The 5-bit control port C (PC3=PC7) is used for generating/accepting handshake signals for the 8-bit data transfer on port A.